'TYPHOON-PROOF' SHENZHEN'S EAST COAST
REDEVELOPMENT OF SHENZHEN’S EASTERN COASTLINE
East Dike is located in Dapeng, a green and mountainous peninsula in the direct proximity of Hongkong and Shenzhen. In 2018, the typhoon Mangkhut damaged the coastline to various degrees. In 2019, team KCAP+FELIXX has been selected to develop the plans, restore the coastline and raise protection standards. With the ‘Triple Dike strategy’, the team developed an integrated approach towards the climate adaptive reorganization of the 130 kilometer long shore. In the concept, water safety strategies are connected to eco-development and nature restoration and merged with social and economic growth. On a 500m long strip in Yangmeikeng, the performance of the proposed nature-based strategies for the sea wall are tested and materialization principles are explored and refined. The realization of this demonstration zone is the first milestone in the construction of 18 kilometers of embankment to be completed by 2021.
The triple dike moves away from a generic protection wall along the coast, towards the creation of three development zones, carefully embedded in current conditions and responding to the specific future needs of every single area. The 1st ‘outer’ dike zone increases the resiliency through wave attenuation, erosion reduction and the enhancement of sedimentation. The 2nd ‘middle’ dike is an elevated embankment, to stop the storm surge and the water pushed up by the waves. It’s not a big wall but a multifunctional zone: an exciting hilly park, an elevated waterfront with urban promenades, a tidal park or even a public building. The 3rd ‘inner’ dike is a hybrid structure which manages the rainwater following the principle of a sponge city. All runoff from adjacent villages and mountains is buffered, delayed and temporarily stored in rain-parks, raingardens, wet forests, wetlands and green streets.
A productive resilience strategy
Dapeng is a mountainous peninsula with lush forests, intersected by riverbeds and creeks, connected to the sea with fantastic sand beaches and impressive rockeries. It offers an extraordinary lush and green environment in the direct proximity of Hongkong and Shenzhen. Along the shore, several small villages originate from fishing communities. Dapeng’s cultural resources and natural settings have fostered the development of tourism, within a vast expending metropolitan area with about 20 million inhabitants. The application of the triple-dike provides a framework to enhance these existing qualities while unlocking potentials for growth. The small-scale identity of the villages is protected by locating new developments within the existing boundaries. Each village’s specific character is strengthened to amplify the rich variation of recreational facilities. To minimize the infrastructural impact on the island, connectivity from the water is enhanced. An interconnected mountain and marine landscape boosts the ecological functioning of the peninsula.
For 6 villages along the shore, the strategy is turned into strategic design projects, creating unique and site-specific realms. The ‘Triple Dike’ is composed of three development zones, carefully embedded in the local conditions and responding to the specific future needs of every village. The small-scale identity will be protected and their different characteristics reinforced.
Village Dongshan is situated in a quiet bay, allowing the embankment to be designed as a green park, merging the mountains and the sea. Guanhu is a creative and cultural district. The dike performs as a vivid green beach boulevard, a backbone that unites existing functions with new recreational facilities. Moonbay is built on a mountainside, overlooking the sea. The embankment acts as a balcony, overlooking the bay, connecting the village to the floating fishing restaurants. Shayuyong is a gateway port, designed as a robust and rocky embankment park. For Pengcheng with its beautiful beaches and as important touristic attraction, the reinforcement of the coast is turned into an attractive beachpark. Yangmeikeng is an exposed village along the coast, within an ecological and marine protection zone.
Demonstration zone, Yangmeikeng
The three protective zones of the ‘Triple Dike’ in Yangmeikeng strengthen its exposed character, turning the village into a contemporary fortress. The design evades the introduction of a grant metropolitan scale and supports the organic village life. A rich collection of places boosts the further growth of the local culture.
The first zone is formed by a collection of ‘rain-gardens’, as part of the communal space. The lush vegetation of trees and shrubs blends with the adjacent mountains and offers covered and shaded places. The gardens collect and infiltrate rainwater and wave overflow. The middle zone is composed of a sequence of shifting walls, with different heigths. They create a plazas and sheltered terraces on different levels, connected by a scenic walk. The third protective zone consists of ‘wave-gardens’, mitigating the impact of the flow during storms. They are planted with robust beach vegetation and rocks and offer places for picnicking and to enjoy the view on the beach. Walls and pavement blend in with the sandcolor of the beach. The materialization illustrates the characteristics of the three dike zones: more delicate materials are used for sheltered places, robust and solid elements are used for the exposed zones.
Design team: KCAP + FELIXX Location: Shenzhen, China
Client: Water Bureau of the Municipality of Shenzhen Year: 2019 - ongoing Area: 1.2 ha
Status: tender won, preliminary and detailed design for 6 villages in progress
Participating parties: China Resource Group (design and construction management), Hope Landscape & Architecture (landscape and construction design), China water transport planning & design institute (engineering), Deltares
© drawings KCAP + Felixx
© photographs Xingzhong Zhang from China Resources group and Hao Cui from CCCC First Harbour Engineer
Felixx Landscape architects & planners
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Felixx Landscape Architects & Planners is a Rotterdam-based office for proactive landscape architecture, founded in 2014. Felixx specializes in addressing urgent global challenges with local embedded design solutions. Our work has a broad international scope and our projects range from spatial research, landscape transformation strategies and developing masterplans, to public space and product design. The team consists of 25 international planning professionals, supported by close partnerships with universities and approved knowledge institutions.
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KCAP Architects&Planners is a leading international design firm specialised in architecture, urbanism and landscape design. KCAP was founded in 1989 by Kees Christiaanse and is led today by eight partners: Xavier Blaringhem, Kees Christiaanse, Jeroen Dirckx, Ruurd Gietema, Anouk Kuitenbrouwer, Irma van Oort, Ute Schneider and Edward Schuurmans. KCAP holds offices in Rotterdam, Zurich and Shanghai and works with a staff of more than 100 talented international professionals on a wide range of projects throughout Europe and Asia.